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This is generally achieved by applying a small part of the output voltage back to the inverting pin In case of non-inverting configuration or in the non-inverting pin In case of inverting pin , using a voltage divider network. Non-inverting Operational Amplifier Configuration In the upper image, an op-amp with Non-inverting configuration is shown.

The signal which is needed to be amplified using the op-amp is feed into the positive or Non-inverting pin of the op-amp circuit, whereas a Voltage divider using two resistors R1 and R2 provide the small part of the output to the inverting pin of the op-amp circuit. These two resistors are providing required feedback to the op-amp. In an ideal condition, the input pin of the op-amp will provide high input impedance and the output pin will be in low output impedance.

The amplification is dependent on those two feedback resistors R1 and R2 connected as the voltage divider configuration. Due to this, and as the Vout is dependent on the feedback network, we can calculate the closed loop voltage gain as below. Also, the gain will be positive and it cannot be in negative form. The gain is directly dependent on the ratio of Rf and R1. Now, Interesting thing is, if we put the value of feedback resistor or Rf as 0, the gain will be 1 or unity.

And if the R1 becomes 0, then the gain will be infinity. But it is only possible theoretically. In reality, it is widely dependent on the op-amp behavior and open-loop gain. Op-amp can also be used two add voltage input voltage as summing amplifier.

Practical Example of Non-inverting Amplifier We will design a non-inverting op-amp circuit which will produce 3x voltage gain at the output comparing the input voltage. We will make a 2V input in the op-amp. We will configure the op-amp in noninverting configuration with 3x gain capabilities. We selected the R1 resistor value as 1.

R2 is the feedback resistor and the amplified output will be 3 times than the input. Voltage Follower or Unity Gain Amplifier As discussed before, if we make Rf or R2 as 0, that means there is no resistance in R2, and Resistor R1 is equal to infinity then the gain of the amplifier will be 1 or it will achieve the unity gain. As there is no resistance in R2, the output is shorted with the negative or inverted input of the op-amp. As the gain is 1 or unity, this configuration is called as unity gain amplifier configuration or voltage follower or buffer.

As we put the input signal across the positive input of the op-amp and the output signal is in phase with the input signal with a 1x gain, we get the same signal across amplifier output. Thus the output voltage is the same as the input voltage. So, it will follow the input voltage and produce the same replica signal across its output. This is why it is called a voltage follower circuit. We know that current flowing into that node must equal the current flowing out and no current is flowing into the inverting input, so there is only the current coming in via Ri and out via Rf and they are equal to each other.

For example, if you have a 10K feedback resistor, and a 2K input resistor, an input voltage of 2V will yield an output voltage of V. And vice versa if the input is a negative voltage. This is an extremely common op-amp configuration as most feedback loops utilize negative feedback, as that increases stability and reduces distortion.

This is outside the scope of this tutorial, but Kushal discusses it in his control systems tutorials. The circuit is slightly different. Circuit Diagram of a Non-Inverting Op-Amp Circuit As expected, the signal input is to the non-inverting input, but now the inverting input is in the middle of a voltage divider.

As the output is now connected to the inverting input via that voltage divider, we know that it will drive the inverting input to match that of the non-inverting input. Once again, we can describe the behavior of this circuit mathematically using KCL. Imagine you have that same 2V input that we used with the inverting op-amp and the same 10K and 2K resistors, for R2 and R1 respectively.

A negative input voltage would also yield a negative output voltage.

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If the non-inverting input is at a higher voltage than the inverting input, then the output will go high. If the inverting input is higher than the non-inverting input, then the output will go low which can be negative, depending on the configuration of the op-amp. This will be covered again, and in more depth, in the op-amp comparator tutorial, but this is sufficient for understanding this tutorial. The circuit setup looks like this: Circuit Diagram of an Inverting Op-Amp Circuit Remembering the Golden Rules of Op-amps , or the 2 most important things to remember with op-amps, we can see that: the inverting input is at a virtual ground as the non-inverting input is tied to ground, and that the same current through Ri is going through Rf.

To help remember what the letters stand for, Ri is the input resistor, and Rf is the feedback resistor, as the output is driving the input through Rf. We can use KCL. We know that current flowing into that node must equal the current flowing out and no current is flowing into the inverting input, so there is only the current coming in via Ri and out via Rf and they are equal to each other.

For example, if you have a 10K feedback resistor, and a 2K input resistor, an input voltage of 2V will yield an output voltage of V. And vice versa if the input is a negative voltage. This is an extremely common op-amp configuration as most feedback loops utilize negative feedback, as that increases stability and reduces distortion.

This is outside the scope of this tutorial, but Kushal discusses it in his control systems tutorials. So it gives a part of the output signal as feedback to the inverting input terminal instead of giving a complete output signal. The complement of this op-amp is inverting op-amp which generates the output signal that is degrees out of phase. This circuit is ideal for impedance buffering applications due to high input and low output impedance.

In this circuit configuration, the output voltage signal is given to the inverting terminal - of the operational amplifier like feedback through a resistor where another resistor is given to the ground. Here, a voltage divider with two types of resistors will provide a small fraction of the output toward the inverting pin of the operational amplifier circuit. Non-Inverting Op-Amp Circuit These two resistors will provide necessary feedback to the operational amplifier.

Here, the R1 resistor is called a feedback resistor Rf. Because of this, the Vout depends on the feedback network. The Current rule states that there is no flow of current toward the inputs of an op-amp whereas the voltage rule states that the op-amp voltage tries to ensure that the voltage disparity between the two op-amp inputs is zero.

From the above non-inverting op-amp circuit, once the voltage rule is applied to that circuit, the voltage at the inverting input will be the same as the non-inverting input.

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