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It was the Scotch Bonnet pepper that completed its distinctive flavour though, the hot pepper indigenous to Jamaica that transformed the Cornish pasty into the Jamaican patty. Wrapped in flaky pastry, usually tinted yellow with egg yolk or turmeric, patties were originally filled with beef, but today they come with a whole variety of fillings including chicken, pork, lamb, saltfish, vegetables, cheese, cheesy beef and tofu. Yeah man! These days, you can find Jamaican patties in many UK supermarkets, as well as at Caribbean food stores, takeaways and restaurants.

Some of the best-known Jamaican patties are made by: Island Delight - their patties were born thanks to their creator missing his favourite snack. Wade Lyn, the founder of Cleone Foods, moved to the UK from Jamaica and wanted to bring the authentic flavours of the Caribbean to his new home. We would eat patties as a snack at lunch time or as a main meal in the evening. Later on I decided I wanted to help bring the vibrant Caribbean tastes and flavours I grew up with to the British market.

At the time, people of Akan descent were called Coromantee by the English, a name deriving from the Ghanaian slave fort, Fort Kormantine in Kormantse, Ghana. Forced into new surroundings, enslaved people had to use the herbs and spices that were available to them, such as the Scotch Bonnet Pepper indigenous to Jamaica, that still puts the heat into Jerk food today.

What do you think? Jamie Oliver caused controversy when he launched a new product called Punchy Jerk Rice in - regarded by many Caribbeans as another example of cultural misappropriation. At the time, meat, often from a wild hog, was dry-rubbed or marinated in a hot spice mixture and cooked slowly over allspice wood. Native to Jamaica and known as pimento, allspice is another key flavour giving Jerk cooking its distinctive taste - combined with ingredients like cloves, cinnamon, scallions, nutmeg, thyme, garlic, brown sugar, ginger, salt and Scotch Bonnet Peppers of course.

Dawn Butler MP, the Shadow Minister for Women and Equalities, and the daughter of Jamaican immigrants, brought the debate to public attention when she questioned whether the chef knew what Jerk was - with Oliver saying that the name was designed to show where he drew his culinary inspiration from. Street food in Jamaica and throughout the Caribbean usually includes Jerk meat and sides such as hard dough bread, a bammy - a flatbread made from deep fried cassava, fried dumplings known as Johnny or Journey cakes and a Festival - a sweet variety of dumpling.

Traditionally, Jerk cooking is associated with pork or chicken, but in contemporary cooking, Jerk seasoning is used to flavour a range of meats, fish and even tofu. Other ingredients include vinegar and local fruits and vegetables, giving each island its own distinctive taste and flavour.

Many Caribbean families create their own Hot Pepper Sauce by adding fruits like mango, papaya and tamarind, as well as their favourite spices and seasonings. Caribbean Contributions to the UK It also made it an offence to promote hatred on the grounds of colour, race or ethnic or national origins. However, it was criticised for failing to tackle discrimination within key areas such as employment and housing and many activists considered it a weak piece of legislation.

Described by the race relations expert A. It was strengthened a few years later when the Race Relations Act finally made discrimination unlawful in employment, housing and advertising. Archibald Fenner Brockway, MP for Eton and Slough, proposed legislation to bring an end to racial discrimination nine times from onwards, and each time he was defeated in Parliament. The Race Relations Board The Race Relations Board, established in to assess and resolve individual cases of discrimination, was also considered weak when it came to enforcing the Race Relations Act.

Its duties were expanded along with the Race Relations Act, and a few years later, it was replaced by the Commission for Racial Equality, which was introduced with the Race Relations Act Caribbeans felt that the community needed to be healed after the riots and a day of fun, food, music, singing and dancing was a good way to do this. Blackwell relocated to England in , inspired by the overwhelming popularity of local Jamaican sound systems.

Blackwell went on to sign Bob Marley and Toots and the Maytals, but despite this success, Island was struggling as a business as the s came to an end and the eighties came into view. A little bird told us - after his split from Island Records, Graeme Goodall went on to found the Doctor Bird label in Specialising in ska, rocksteady, reggae and dub, the label was instrumental in introducing reggae to the world. The doctor bird or swallow tail humming bird lives only in Jamaica!

The bird got its name because its erect black crest and two long tails resemble the top hat and long-tail coat worn by doctors in the old days. They called it the God bird, believing it was the reincarnation of dead souls. Wah Bed fi lay down They originally started as Commercial Entertainments, a booking and management agency. Creole Records was a subsidiary of Trojan Records in , before becoming a new label in Carnival Carnival in the UK The Carnival tradition came to the UK with the arrival of the Windrush Generation from onwards, but it would be another decade before the first recognised Caribbean Carnival paraded in Britain.

The first UK carnival was created in Nottingham in , followed by carnivals in Notting Hill in , Leeds in and Manchester in Today, many UK cities have Caribbean-inspired carnivals, but the largest and best-known one is Notting Hill carnival in London.

Carnival traditions In the 12 months leading up to the carnival, carnival troupes choose a theme, make their elaborate costumes and learn dances associated with their theme - hopeful it will get them noticed and see them crowned the best troupe of the carnival.

On the day Crowds of carnival revellers sing, dance and jam to the music. There is plenty on offer for everyone, including traditional Caribbean street food, carnival - themed clothing and everything you need to make carnival a noisy, vibrant affair, including whistles, horns, maracas, flags and Caribbean ornaments.

Usually, a Carnival Queen is chosen and awards given for the best band. Have you been to a Caribbean carnival in the UK, or taken part in one? New Calypsos and Soca songs are released every year for carnival season and although steel pans are still at the heart of the music, reggae and sound systems are also popular. Who Let the Dogs Out Let Loose - means dance in any style you want to, so have fun doing the moves below - all associated with dancing at a Caribbean Carnival Chip - means dancing on your own in a slow kind of walk, not quite a dance, as you follow the troupes and bands during a carnival procession.

Jammin - means dancing to the music being played at a carnival in your own style, as the music moves you. It was said that enslaved people found it amusing to see men and women carnival dancing in pairs like Europeans do, as in African dancing, men and women usually danced in separate groups, in ritual performances.

Parades, costumes and masks African traditions still feature in Caribbean carnivals today with revellers parading and circling communities, wearing costumes and masks. At the time, people believed it brought good fortune, healed problems and calmed angry relatives who had passed on to the next world. Carnival costumes and masks still include natural objects in their design, like bones, grasses, beads, shells and fabric, to represent an idea or spiritual force.

Carnival in the Caribbean has a complicated history, tied to colonialism, religion, freedom and celebration. The Windrush Generation brought their musical traditions with them, from Calypso and Mento to string bands and steel pans, presenting the UK with new genres of music and creating many of the styles that followed. Alongside the music, the exhibition also explored what was happening in the country throughout each decade and the part African-Caribbean music played in bringing people of all races and cultures together, and its impact on wider UK society.

Why 52? The Windrush Generation also inspired musicians from all ethnic backgrounds to create great new music, inspired by those that have gone before. The exhibition event drew attention to 52 key genres of music identified in the UK music scene inspired and influenced by music of Black origin, as well as music created by, or modified to create sub-genres, by Black artists and producers. We wanted to reflect and celebrate the musical history of African-Caribbean communities in the UK, and show how this music has filtered down over the years into other cultures and musical genres, influencing music in the UK in a profound and lasting way.

Music is also a pivotal part of Caribbean culture of course! Want to know more? There are many Living Legends known nationally and these people have become important to Caribbean history, heritage and culture in the UK because they have done amazing things to help set the record straight about who Caribbeans are, and our contribution on the local, national and international stage. Some of these Living Legends have been recognised with honours from the Queen, others with awards from Black initiatives like the National Windrush Star Awards.

Many of those who could be described as Legends are people who are so well-known in their local neighbourhoods that everyone goes to them for advice, help and inspiration, whether they are Black or white, young or old. The Legends that Museumand want to recognise can be found in the Meet Our Contributors section of this book and their stories make amazing reading. Why not seek out the people in your neighbourhood who fit the description Legend and find a way to honour them?

Recognising and showing appreciation to people, informally or formally, is a good thing. For example, one of our Caribbean traditions is to address the older people in our community as Miss or Massa - terms of affection and respect. People who are considered Caribbean heroes and sheroes in the UK include: Black politicians including MPs and local councillors.

Black sportspeople include track and field athletes, footballers, boxers and tennis players. Linford Christie OBE, a Jamaican-born former sprinter, is the only British man to have won gold medals in the metres at all four major competitions open to British athletes: the Olympic Games, the World Championships, the European Championships and the Commonwealth Games.

The next generation of Black sportspeople are fast becoming legends too. Black musicians spanning classical and contemporary music, include singers, songwriters and composers. Winifred Atwell was born in Trinidad and Tobago. She studied piano at the Royal Academy of Music in London in and went on to have a series of boogie-woogie and ragtime hits, selling over 20 million records. Black authors, poets and writers. London had books and accessible libraries.

His poetry often explored life for Caribbeans in the Windrush era. A Race Equality Campaigner. In , the manager of a London hotel refused to let Constantine and his family stay, on the grounds of their race. Who would you add to this List of Legends? UK have played a crucial role in the lives of the Black churches were established in the UK when Caribbeans Windrush Generation and their descendants. A place to For example, through the church, people have been able to meet and socialise at events, join in with activities like luncheon clubs for elders, access services such as health checks provided by volunteer Black nurses working in the NHS, and get support from housing associations.

Churches where black members are in the majority also run Saturday and Sunday schools and educational programmes like Black Boys Can, where the members act as coaches, mentors and role models. The first Black-led churches met in the homes of Caribbeans until the s, when Black people were able to hire church halls, school halls and community centres for worship.

Non-Caribbeans were drawn into the churches by the lively services featuring gospel songs and choruses, and the clapping and dancing, an expression of joy and the emotion of the religious experience. The very places that many Caribbeans found themselves unwelcomed at in the Windrush era, have now been brought back to life by becoming meeting places for Caribbean communities.

Black-led churches often fill the gap left by mainstream services, with Black pastors performing a number of roles including community worker, advocate and friend. Today, Black churches are playing an increasingly important role in wider society and hold important positions in ecumenical and interfaith affairs.

They make a significant contribution to community cohesion and civic life in multicultural, multifaith Britain. When people were leaving the islands to come to the UK many parents and church leaders gave this advice to the travellers, Meet the Reverend Rose Hudson-Wilkin MBE Caribbean church leaders have come a long way. On 19 May , she was one of several religious leaders to lead prayers at the wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle.

Have you heard these religious sayings? Bless Up or Blessings A greeting used by Caribbeans to wish someone a good day. If yuh hear di devil a come, clear de way. Manners mek di man. Guidance for good behaviour. Blues Parties, Shebeens and Sound Systems Racial prejudice and discrimination were a daily experience for many Caribbeans in s England and this extended to their not being allowed to hire public spaces for social events.

Naturally, the Caribbean community were frustrated by this and responded by creating their own spaces and forms of leisure and entertainment including House Parties. These parties were often held in inner-city, multicultural areas, where large numbers of Caribbeans lived.

They developed into Blues Parties and Shebeens and moved from front rooms and dining rooms, into the basements of houses or derelict buildings, to accommodate the growing number of partygoers. Shebeens still exist, although not in the numbers there were up to the s. Instead of having a reputation as places for illegal drinking serving homemade white rum, they now serve mainly mainstream beers and spirits and rarely attract the attention of the police and local authorities.

We worked hard in those early days in England, so we needed to let our hair down at the weekends. Women never wanted to be seen in the same outfit twice so those who could sew, made their own clothes. Good times! We needed house parties, Blues parties and Shebeens. In these places, a Black person could be themselves, speak their own lingo, listen and dance to their own kind of music, eat their own kind of food and feel safe. Safe from teasing, taunts, racist remarks and prejudice.

We were with our own and many a young person got looked after by the older people, who taught them about life. Here we got to know from each other how our community was handling racism, where there were rooms to rent, and who had had enough and was moving to a new city or going back home. It follows the fortunes of a Caribbean couple, Pearl and George, who run a Shebeen from their terraced house, as a gathering place for their community.

Museumand, The National Caribbean Heritage Museum was one of the organisations that provided research and information for the play, helping the public to see pivotal moments in Caribbean history leap straight off the page onto the stage!

Sound Systems The music for Blues Parties and Shebeens came from radiograms and then from Sound Systems, amplifiers elaborately decorated with very large speaker boxes, often built by hand. The Sound Systems were run by crews, a team of people who created, maintained and transported them from venue to venue, set them up, played them and sold tickets for each performance.

Each crew had their own loyal following, with some specialising in dub, some in MCs, some playing traditional Caribbean music like Ska or Rastafariinspired tunes, and others playing the latest beats of the time. They created a music scene that people of all ages and cultures gravitated to, and still do.

As Sound System fans would say, check out just a few of the loudest, hottest, baddest tunes Black Newspapers According to the British Library, the earliest publications by Black people in Britain included 18th century slave narratives and 19th century abolitionist literature. In the 20th century, pamphlets and newssheets were being produced by organisations like the League of Coloured Peoples.

Independent presses published books and materials focusing on the experience of African Caribbean communities in the UK, and many of the iconic Black newspapers we know today started up. Here are just a few of the best-known ones. Read all about it As well as news, the paper also featured a whole range of arts and published poems and stories, providing a vehicle for Caribbean expression and a sense of community.

With a circulation of up to 15, the newspaper rolled off the presses until , and was produced from offices above a record shop at Brixton Road, London. Do you remember reading it, or have you heard about it from a parent or grandparent? It was launched by Hansib Publications, a publishing house for Caribbean, African and Asian writers and communities, founded in London by the Guyaneseborn businessman, Arif Ali in The newspaper became an important part of anti-racist campaigning, but Hansib Publications sold it off in to focus on producing books.

The newspaper went on to be published by Ethnic Media Group Ltd, before being merged with New Nation in , another Black newspaper that had started in Sadly, the Ethnic Media Group went into administration in and the rights to The Caribbean Times and other titles were sold.

Was this a favourite with your family? What made The Voice different from other Black newspapers at the time, is that it focused on the experiences and interests of British-born African Caribbean people. The first issue of The Voice was timed to coincide with the Notting Hill Carnival in August and at first, it was only sold in London, and cost just 54p.

After covering events like the Brixton riot in , the newspaper became known for its insightful news and investigative reporting, and was popular with organisations like the London councils and the BBC, who advertised in the paper hoping to recruit and increase the ethnic diversity of their staff. Do you read The Voice? First published in , the magazine sells over 30, copies each month and is one of the few, if not the only Black media company of its kind, to have remained in Black British ownership.

While many magazines have come and gone throughout the nineties, noughties and beyond, Pride has become a market leader, attracting global advertisers like Ford and Vodaphone, who see advertising in the magazine as the best way to reach Black British consumers in the UK. Are you a fan? Readers may remember the weekly entertainment section, The Buzz, which featured Black music, gospel, entertainment news and exclusive interviews.

The advent of digital media has seen a whole range of online publications aimed at the Black community covering business, current affairs, culture, politics and much, much more. The Immigration Act gave Commonwealth citizens who were already living in the UK indefinite leave to remain. Some Caribbeans completed the paperwork to confirm their new status.

Some had their children travel on their passports and as a result felt quite rightly their children were British citizens. There have been apologies from the Government but many Caribbeans are still waiting for the compensation and support they were promised. The Windrush Scandal has left many Caribbeans and their British-born descendants angry at the way the Caribbean contribution to the UK has not been valued. As members of the Windrush Generation and their Britishborn descendants ourselves, we believe that Caribbeans came, saw, contributed and made Britain great again.

Anyone who had arrived in the UK from a Commonwealth country before was granted an automatic right permanently to remain, unless they left the UK for more than two years. The speech caused a political storm for suggesting that immigrants could become the largest group of people in the country, with the native population in the minority. These fears have caused tensions and strained relations between communities in the UK, and have exacerbated structural racism limiting the freedoms and restricting the rights of Black people, including those born in the UK.

For example, the Lammy Review in , which looked at the outcomes for Black, Asian and minority ethnic BAME people in the justice system, showed that Black people are 10 times more likely to be stopped and searched by the police than white people, are more likely to be arrested and sent to prison, and are twice as likely to die in police custody.

First broadcast in June , the drama shares the shocking experience of Anthony Bryan, who after 50 years in the UK, was wrongfully detained by the Home Office and threatened with deportation. London Is the Place for Me The Windrush Generation who made Britain their home have lived through over 70 winters now and the UK has been better for it!

Grandma says: Most Caribbeans only came to spend about five years or so in England. We came to earn enough money to improve the economic side of our lives and that of our families. A lot of women who came from the Caribbean to the UK were seamstresses and dressmakers, but many wanted to be nurses. Thankfully, things have changed Specialising in child protection, she has provided leadership in major hospital trusts in London, teaching and advising on legal and governmental committees.

Professor Kinnair was made Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in and was recognised as a person of influence in the Powerlist, which lists the most influential Britons of African or African Caribbean descent. Having spent a small fortune on high-end furniture like the Blue Spot Radiogram, or lacy and embroidered tablecloths for the front room, there was no way households would let family and friends ruin them, so coasters and placemats were everywhere!

As well as using coasters and placemats to protect tables and other surfaces from damage, many Caribbeans also used them to put ornaments on, or for drinking glasses and bottles. Caribbeans were also attracted to coasters and placemats as decorative objects and bought them in many different colours and designs. Many people also collected them when companies like washing powder manufacturers offered them as free gifts in exchange for tokens snipped from their packaging.

Collecting free gifts therefore was a popular activity. Caribbean-made coasters and placemats were becoming increasingly popular and readily available too. Homesick members of the Windrush Generation visited the Caribbean on holiday and brought them back as reminders of home, along with tea towels of course. Family and friends visited from the Caribbean too and often chose coasters and placemats as gifts for their hosts.

These much-loved souvenirs were decorated with everything from island flags and native flowers to Caribbean rhymes and sayings. Have you got a favourite design that reminds you of those early days or your childhood? Candy-striped sheets and pillowcases, in pastel shades of pink, blue and yellow, were on almost every single and double bed in Caribbean homes, as families adjusted to a chillier life in the UK.

The bedclothes came in two varieties, brushed cotton flannelette and linen, but it was the flannelette kind that the Windrush Generation preferred, simply because they were warmer! We were also drawn to candy-striped bedclothes as they made a nice change from the traditional, clinical-looking white sheets that were used in the UK before bedding became brighter.

We put two sheets on each bed, one for sleeping on, and the other for sleeping underneath, piled high with extra blankets and a Candlewick bedspread if it was cold. Candlewick bedspreads were all the rage back then too, used as much for style as for extra warmth. Do you remember curling up under candy-striped bedclothes in winter? Jim Reeves Records Jim Reeves was an American singer-songwriter with songs in the charts from the s right up until the 80s.

He was a firm favourite with many Caribbeans during the Windrush era and beyond, for his gospel songs, country songs and love songs resonated and spoke to them. There were other American crooners in the popular charts that Caribbeans enjoyed. Pat Boone was one of them. Can you remember dancing the night away to one of his love songs?! Calabash The Calabash is a vine grown for its fruit, which comes in a variety of shapes including round, bottle-shaped and snake-like.

Young Calabash fruits can be harvested and eaten as a vegetable, but rounder varieties gourds are often left to mature on the vine. These are then dried in the sun and used to make cups, bowls and basins. This has been done for centuries, right up until the s and 50s. Eventually, gourd utensils were replaced first by enamelware, and then by ceramics, as other materials became more widely available and affordable.

Have you got a Calabash-inspired object in your home brought back from the Caribbean or sent as a gift? The tree is also the national tree of St Lucia. The legacy and popularity of Calabash dishes are reflected in Caribbean sayings still used today. In some Caribbean countries, Calabash gourds are still used in artisan crafts, polished to a high sheen before being used to make coffee table ornaments, or decorated to make things like handbags, plant containers and lamp holders.

The name comes from the 17th century, when the Dutch developed a way of casting heavy duty pots with sand, to create a smoother finish. Today, Dutchies come in a variety of sizes and are usually made of seasoned cast iron or cast aluminium, making them oven-proof with a tight-fitting lid.

But for many families, Dutchies are much more than just cooking pots. Tune into YouTube to watch the video: whether for the first or the hundredth time! Question: Hoddie Doddie with a round black body Three legs and a wooden hat. Answer: Cooking-pot And another one that goes… Riddle: Put mi on kimbo, teck mi off kimbo, wash mi kimbo same way. Question: One John-crow sit down on three cotton-tree?

Answer: Cooking-pot set on fire-stones As the name suggests, the oven is filled with coal and the food is placed on a grill, which sits on top of the pot. What makes these beauties special is their small size. Many people also use the hot ashes underneath to roast things like breadfruit and sweet potatoes.

At one time, Coal Ovens were the main means of cooking in the Caribbean. Have you tasted food cooked on a Coal Oven? Many traditional recipes for Sweet Potato Pudding say it should be cooked in a Dutch Pot on a Coal Oven, with coals placed inside the oven, and on top of the Dutch Pot, so the pudding cooks from the bottom and the top.

This method of cooking is even reflected in a popular Jamaican riddle which goes… Hell a top, hell a bottom, and hallelujah in di miggle - what am I? Answer: Sweet Potato Pudding The first enamel cookware came from Germany in the late s, with enamel, and later porcelain, providing a safe, clean coating for metal pots, pans and basins.

It became popular in many countries throughout the late s and early s, and stayed that way until the arrival of materials like aluminium, stainless steel, Pyrex and plastic changed kitchenware from the s onwards. Do you still use enamelware or have you discovered it as a fan of vintage? In turn, enamelware itself was replaced when bone china and ceramics became more available and affordable. In most Caribbean countries, Rum Cake is made at Christmas, using dried fruit soaked in rum for months on end, often as long as a year!

Some people say the rum softens the raisins, currants and prunes, while others believe it intensifies the flavour. Like the Dutch Pot, cake tins have become treasured family heirlooms, with each one holding fond memories of baking special occasion cakes. Over time, often battered and blackened from baking cakes for birthdays, christenings, weddings, funerals and weekend cakes for visitors, the old cake tins of the s may have been pushed to the back of kitchen cupboards in favour of more modern versions.

But the memories they created live on, along with the cultural traditions. Many guests still expect to have two slices of cake when they visit, plus a couple of slices to take home to their family! This is so very different to weddings where traditionally guests are given a small piece of cake.

However, a tradition has developed of using gravy browning to create the dark colour associated with Black Cake! Other popular Caribbean cakes include coconut cake, ginger cake and Christmas cake - a type of Rum Cake. Like all cake recipes, every family has their own special, unique Christmas cake recipe and believe theirs is best! Grater Cake for instance, a Jamaican dessert made of sugar and grated coconut formed into small, round shapes or squares and placed on a baking tray until the sugar hardens.

Bulla Cake, another Jamaican sweet treat, is a small, round, flat loaf made with molasses, ginger and nutmeg and baked on a baking tray. It is usually eaten with cheese, butter or avocado. Many of the Caribbeans who came to the UK from onwards were used to cooking with a range of fresh vegetables picked from their kitchen garden, including beans and peas.

When they arrived in the UK, they often had to improvise using dried varieties. Pressure cookers have remained popular throughout the decades and are often spotted on TV cooking shows like MasterChef. Pressure cookers were an invaluable way to cook time-honoured Caribbean dishes much more quickly, especially dishes that would traditionally be slow cooked.

From stews and curries, to classics like rice and peas and curry goat, family favourites could be cooked in around two thirds of the time, with the meat just as tender and the flavours just as deep and aromatic. A taste of home! Conch Shell Conch shells are often seen in the UK living rooms of Caribbean homes, or placed as tokens of love on the graves of family and friends.

Because the conch is significant within traditional Caribbean culture in all kinds of ways. It can also be eaten raw, in salads or as a souse. Local restaurateurs get together to compete for the title of best conch dish, judged by international chefs, alongside competitions, events and musical performances. Traditionally, the conch has been used as a wind instrument, by making a small hole in the shell and then blowing into it like a trumpet. One of the best known species used is the Queen Conch Strombus Gigas , which also produces rare pearls in shades of white, brown, orange and pink.

In Grenada, fishermen used conch shell trumpets to let local people know the fish was on sale. While in the Bahamas, broken conch shells are often used to top outdoor walls, to make them harder to climb over.

Today, many Caribbean countries have now banned the export of queen conch shells, while others have closed their queen conch fisheries to protect their numbers. Paraffin Heater Do you remember being sent to buy paraffin as a child?! Valor paraffin heaters were a familiar sight in many Caribbean homes during the Windrush era.

They were cheaper than gas fires, easier to use and less messy than coal. Families used them to keep warm of course, but they were also used for cooking, to keep water in the kettle hot, and to heat iron combs for straightening hair, a fashionable look for Caribbean women at the time. The company is still going today, as part of the Baxi Group. You can find out more about their history at: www.

The downside of having a paraffin heater was the smell! There were two types of paraffin on sale, blue and pink. Pink was the cheapest and smelliest, but both kinds permeated everything, including clothes and hair. Children were often sent to buy paraffin from the local hardware store or petrol station as one of the chores they did to help the family. Vinyl Tablecloths The much-loved PVC tablecloth still graces many a kitchen table in Caribbean homes today, particularly those of the Windrush Generation.

Originally, durable, wipe-clean tablecloths were often made of oilcloth, which was originally used for insulating roofs. After World War 2, tablecloths became brighter than ever and by the late s PVC tablecloths were all the rage, reflecting the trend towards vibrant colours, innovative homewares made of new materials, and less formal dining.

Many people chose to eat around the kitchen table. Sunday Best On Sundays, special occasions or when friends visited, the PVC tablecloth would often be replaced by an embroidered, linen version instead. At the time, many women and girls embroidered their own tablecloths and made matching napkins as a family activity in the evenings. The tablecloths often featured country garden or wildlife scenes. Back then, embroidery and other forms of needlework were considered good ways for girls to learn and prepare to become homemakers!

Have you got a PVC tablecloth on your kitchen table? PVC tablecloths appealed to the Caribbean taste for practicality and living in a colourful home. The distinctive coverings with patterns including classics like houndstooth designs, polka dots, fruit, and flower bouquets, together with more contemporary styles in pastel colours gave Caribbeans an easy, affordable, instant way to brighten up the dull interiors characterising many private-rented, post-war homes in the UK.

Many Caribbeans had prepared and cooked food outdoors back home and were keen to have easy-to-clean surfaces indoors, so tough, waterproof, wipeable PVC was ideal. Blue Spot Radiogram Blaupunkt Many Caribbean homes, even the one-roomed apartments many people still lived in, featured a Blue Spot radiogram in the s and 60s.

Usually made of dark brown mahogany with a high gloss finish, the radiogram was a mosttreasured possession and definitely a status symbol. A radiogram is a piece of furniture that combines a radio and a record player, originally made of polished wood. They reached the peak of their popularity after World War 2, coinciding with the arrival of the Windrush Generation. Caribbeans favoured the Blue Spot radiogram because it had a booming sound and hefty bass speakers bigger than other brands of radiogram or record player.

Once the Blaupunkt valve radio warmed up, the whole household could listen to music, the BBC World Service and international radio stations that played Caribbean music such as Calypso. As a high-end piece of furniture, the Blue Spot also featured a cocktail cabinet which would be loaded with favourite Caribbean tipples of the time, ready for the weekend, parties, and any visitors that dropped by.

Popular drinks included white and dark rum bought in the Caribbean or the UK, along with classics like Cherry B and Babycham. These iconic glass sculptures were available in a huge range of sizes, colours and styles, making them highly collectable and universally appealing. These classic ornaments are making something of a comeback today as vintage and retro are so popular. The Murano glass fish is a perfect example of the vibrant and unique designs that were being created at the time, and they were admired and collected by almost every Caribbean household.

The most popular fish ornament came in blue and measured 33cm wide, 9cm deep and 12cm high. Occasionally, the fish came in different colours, making them even more collectable. Do you still have your blue fish ornament? Candlewick Bedspreads Candlewick bedspreads became a must-have addition to many Caribbean bedrooms during the Windrush era.

They were bought to show friends and visitors that you had style and taste, and were proudly displayed on beds, especially when guests were around! Candlewicking is a form of whitework embroidery that traditionally uses unbleached cotton thread to decorate unbleached muslin, using tufted stitches combined with traditional embroidery.

The name comes from the soft spun cotton thread, which was also braided and used to make the wick for candles. Candlewick bedspreads came in a variety of colours including pink, white, lemon and blue, with popular designs featuring natural motifs like flowers, trees and insects. As well as adding a touch of glamour, they were also very practical, and could even be machine-washed. They were warm and soft to the touch too, adding another cosy layer in winter, a season that many Caribbeans were still trying to get used to.

Families often bought their bedspreads from door-to-door salesmen, who sold them from suitcases during the s and 60s. Johnnie Walker whiskey and Martini were firm favourites too, along with stout, pale ale, mild and Guinness, enjoyed on their own or mixed as a punch.

The concept of a home bar is thought to have come from America in the s, reflecting a more affluent, sociable lifestyle. They became popular in the UK after the Second World War, with home bars and drinks trolleys adorning many living rooms in the s and 60s. The glass cocktail cabinet For the Windrush Generation, glass cocktail cabinets were status symbols, and a treasuretrove of family glassware.

Every square inch was used to display a variety of glasses, often decorated with gilt or gold, including shot glasses, whisky tumblers, hi-balls and the Babycham branded glasses that featured their logo, the Bambi deer. Babycham was an alcoholic drink aimed at women.

No self-respecting Caribbean home bar would be without an ice bucket in the shape of a pineapple, or without a gold drinks trolley, so hosts could transport and display drinks room-to-room. As African-Caribbean centres and nightclubs became established in the s and 80s, trends in socialising changed, but the home bar and drinks trolley still holds a special place in many Caribbean hearts.

It may have been illegal, but it was often needed to numb the pain of discrimination and racism. Invader sued, and after a long court case, he won compensation but the settlement also allowed Amsterdam to retain his copyright. Chorus: Drink a rum and a punch a crema, drink a rum Is Christmas morning Drink a rum and a punch a crema, drink a rum Mama, drink if you drinking!

Drink a rum and a punch a crema, drink a rum. Let we fete if we feteing Drink a rum and a punch a crema, drink a rum. Photographs Caribbeans living in the UK in the early days of the Windrush era often had professional photos taken to send back home. Pictures were often taken by the same photographer, who used the same backdrop and props for all their photographs! In the s, door-to-door salesmen encouraged Caribbeans to have their framed black and white photos redone in colour.

The new photographs adorned mantelpieces, coffee tables and front room walls, in the strongly-held belief that first impressions count, and everyone wanted their guests to know they were a modern household. Front rooms, dining rooms and hallways were awash with these adornments, to prove to the world the family could afford such things. Pictures of the Queen were popular too, along with brass or gilt wall clocks, the more ornate the better to show off your taste and style.

Instead, the Windrush Generation often sent barrels filled with things like new or second-hand clothing, soft furnishings, medical items and dried foods. The contents were useful for families, or could be sold to help them earn an income. Barrels were often kept in the front room the best room in the house or in the bedroom.

Even today, the practice is still going strong, over 70 years on! The Trunk As you can imagine, for many of the Windrush Generation, the trunk they brought with them on their first journey to the UK is a treasured possession. For some, it was also an expression of their promise to return home within five or ten years. In more recent years, people sent money back home through companies like Western Union and Moneygram, as it was a safe, quick and simple way to transfer money.

People used their trunks to store the things they wanted to take back to the Caribbean, such as bed and table linen, dress and curtain fabrics, fine china, decorative ornaments, picture frames and plastic or silk flowers. In the early days of the Windrush Generation, there was a belief among many Caribbeans that UK streets were paved with gold, literally as well as metaphorically. Slave Bangles Slave bangles, or manillas are traditionally made from copper, silver or gold.

Slave bangles are named after their role in the West African slave trade, when they were often used as currency and traded for enslaved people - taken from Africa to the Americas. Using index cards, make a different card for each type of animal found in your area by pasting a picture of the animal on it and listing some facts. Be able to use the cards to show where each animal is in the food chain. Build a poster explaining the food chain of animals in your area. Any other item related to project Any other item related to project Any other item related to project Entomology To exhibit in this category, you must be currently enrolled in levels of the entomology project.

Collection boxes should be covered with plastic or glass that can be removed. Collections should be organized by order. When exhibiting after more than one year in the project, specify new collections for the current year. Performance in preparation of each collection shall require adherence to proper pinning and labeling methods as described in the 4-H entomology project materials and other recognized sources.

Specimens shall be undamaged, and if moths or butterflies, the wings shall be properly spread. Spreading legs and wings of other groups is not required but shall receive recognition if done. Arrangements shall be neat and uniform in such a manner that anyone examining the collection can understand the groupings. Educational displays may consist of specialized groupings of insects or related to any aspect of insect life.

Displays should be presented in a clear, concise and interesting manner. The purpose of educational displays is to learn more about the importance, life cycles, biology, ecology, diversity, etc. Hint: Use the insects from your pitfall trap and check the grill guard on family vehicles. For first year members of level 1 Collect, mount, identify, and label at least 30 different kinds of adult insects, including at least 5 Orders one of which should be Order Lepidoptera.

For second year members of level 1 Collect, mount, identify, and label at least 35 different kinds of adult insects, including at least 5 Orders one of which should be Order Lepidoptera.

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